Supplementary Material for: Rapid Progression of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Urinary Biomarkers as Predictors

  • Dorien J.M. Peters (Contributor)
  • Peter Kappert (Contributor)
  • Gerwin E. Engels (HaemoScan BV) (Contributor)
  • Lianne Messchendorp (Contributor)
  • Esther Meijer (Contributor)
  • Folkert Visser (Contributor)
  • Ron Gansevoort (Contributor)
  • Monique Losekoot (Contributor)



Background: Markers currently used to predict the likelihood of rapid disease progression in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are expensive and time consuming to assess and often have limited sensitivity. New, easy-to-measure markers are therefore needed that alone or in combination with conventional risk markers can predict the rate of disease progression. In the present study, we investigated the ability of tubular damage and inflammation markers to predict kidney function decline.

Methods: At baseline, albumin, immunoglobulin G, kidney injury molecule 1, β2 microglobulin (β2MG), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 ­(MCP-1) were measured in 24-h urine samples of patients participating in a study investigating the therapeutic efficacy of lanreotide in ADPKD. Individual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during follow-up was calculated using mixed-model analysis taking into account 13 ­eGFRs (chronic kidney disease EPIdemiology) per patient. Logistic regression analysis was used to select urinary biomarkers that had the best association with rapidly progressive disease. The predictive value of these selected urinary biomarkers was compared to other risk scores using C-statistics.

Results: Included were 302 patients of whom 53.3% were female, with an average age of 48 ± 7 years, eGFR of 52 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m2, and a height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) of 1,082 (736–1,669) mL/m. At baseline, all urinary damage and inflammation markers were associated with baseline eGFR, also after adjustment for age, sex and baseline htTKV. For longitudinal analyses only patients randomized to standard care were considered (n = 152). A stepwise backward analysis revealed that β2MG and MCP-1 showed the strongest association with rapidly progressive disease. A urinary biomarker score was created by summing the ranking of tertiles of β2MG and MCP-1 excretion. The predictive value of this urinary biomarker score was higher compared to that of the Mayo htTKV classification (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73 [0.64–0.82] vs. 0.61 [0.51–0.71], p = 0.04) and comparable to that of the predicting renal outcomes in ­ADPKD score (AUC 0.73 [0.64–0.82] vs. 0.65 [0.55–0.75], p = 0.18). In a second independent cohort with better kidney function, similar results were found for the urinary biomarker score.

Conclusion: Measurement of urinary β2MG and MCP-1 excretion allows selection of ADPKD patients with rapidly progressive disease, with a predictive value comparable to or even higher than that of TKV or PKD mutation. Easy and inexpensive to measure urinary markers therefore hold promise to help predict prognosis in ADPKD.
Date made available1-Nov-2019
PublisherUniversity of Groningen

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