A comparison of the general movements assessment with traditional approaches to newborn and infant assessment: Concurrent validity

Laurie M. Snider*, Annette Majnemer, Barbara Mazer, Suzann Campbell, Arend F. Bos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Assessment of the quality of general movements (GMs) is an early clinical marker for prediction of cerebral palsy.

Aims: To explore how the General Movements Assessment (GMsA) relates to traditional newborn and infant measures currently in use.

Study design: A prospective cohort design was used to examine concurrent validity of the GMsA in Neonatal Intensive Care (NICU) survivors (n = 100) at three age points: preterm (34 weeks gestational age GA), term (38-40 weeks GA), and post term (12 weeks adjusted age [AA]) with traditional assessments (see below). Correlation analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between tests at each age point.

Subjects: Preterm infants born at

Outcome measures: Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP), Einstein Neonatal Neurobehavioral. Assessment Scale (ENNAS), Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS).

Results: A low-strength relationship (r=

Conclusions: Evidence of concurrent validity of the GMsA with traditional assessments was not found. These early findings support Prechtl's suggestion that GMs reflect a unique neurologic construct, different from traditional tests and reinforce the complementary perspective which the GMsA brings to neonatal assessment. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-303
Number of pages7
JournalEarly Human Development
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May-2008


  • neurobehavioral assessment
  • preterm infant
  • general movements
  • functional motor assessment

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