A comprehensive time course and correlation analysis of indomethacin-induced inflammation, bile acid alterations and dysbiosis in the rat small intestine

Bernadette Lázár, Szilvia B. László, Barbara Hutka, András S. Tóth, Amir Mohammadzadeh, Eszter Berekméri, Bence Ágg, Mihály Balogh, Viktor Sajtos, Kornél Király, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani, Anna Földes, Gábor Varga, Nóra Makra, Eszter Ostorházi, Dóra Szabó, Balázs Ligeti, Ágnes Kemény, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Péter FerdinandyKlára Gyires, Zoltán S. Zádori

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It has been proposed that changes in microbiota due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) alter the
composition of bile, and elevation of hydrophobic secondary bile acids contributes to small intestinal damage.
However, little is known about the effect of NSAIDs on small intestinal bile acids, and whether bile alterations
correlate with mucosal injury and dysbiosis. Here we determined the ileal bile acid metabolome and microbiota
24, 48 and 72 h after indomethacin treatment, and their correlation with each other and with tissue damage in
rats. In parallel with the development of inflammation, indomethacin increased the ileal proportion of glycine
and taurine conjugated bile acids, but not bile hydrophobicity. Firmicutes decreased with time, whereas Gam-
maproteobacteria increased first, but declined later and were partially replaced by Bilophila, Bacteroides and
Fusobacterium. Mucosal injury correlated negatively with unconjugated bile acids and Gram-positive bacteria,
and positively with taurine conjugates and some Gram-negative taxa. Strong positive correlation was found
between Lactobacillaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae and unconjugated bile acids. Indomethacin-induced
dysbiosis was not likely due to direct antibacterial effects or alterations in luminal pH. Here we provide the
first detailed characterization of indomethacin-induced time-dependent alterations in small intestinal bile acid
composition, and their associations with mucosal injury and dysbiosis. Our results suggest that increased bile
hydrophobicity is not likely to contribute to indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage.
Original languageEnglish
Article number114590
Number of pages15
JournalBiochemical Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2021
Externally publishedYes

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