OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate the performance of the Diabetes Risk Index (DRI), a metabolomic index based on lipoprotein particles and branched chain amino acids, on the incidence of newly developed hypertension in a large community dwelling cohort.
METHODS: The DRI was calculated by combining 6 lipoprotein parameters [sizes of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), concentrations of large VLDL, small LDL, and large HDL particles], and the concentrations of valine and leucine. DRI scores were estimated in 4169 participants from the PREVEND prospective cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of DRI scores with incident hypertension.
RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 924 new hypertension cases were ascertained. In analyses adjusted for age and sex, there was a significant association between DRI and incident hypertension with a hazard ratio (HR) per 1 SD increase of 1.45 (95% CI 1.36,1.54; p < 0.001). After additional adjustment for traditional risk factors, the HR remained significant (HRadj 1.21, 95% CI 1.10, 1.33, p <0.001). Likewise, subjects in the top quartile of DRI presented with a higher risk of hypertension (HRadj 1.64, 95% CI 1.28, 2.10, p <0.001). Furthermore, the net reclassification improvement assessment improved after the addition of DRI to a traditional risk model (p <0.001), allowing proper reclassification of 34% of the participants.
CONCLUSION: Higher DRI scores were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension. Such association was independent of traditional clinical risk factors for hypertension.