A Model-based Assessment of Oseltamivir Prophylaxis Strategies to Prevent Influenza in Nursing Homes

Carline van den Dool*, Eelko Hak, Marc J. M. Bonten, Jacco Wallinga

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Abstract

    Prophylaxis with neuraminidase inhibitors is important for controlling seasonal influenza outbreaks in long-term care settings. We used a stochastic individual-based model that simulates influenza virus transmission in a long-term care nursing home department to study the protection offered to patients by different strategies of prophylaxis with oseltamivir and determined the effect of emerging resistance. Without resistance, postexposure and continuous prophylaxis reduced the patient infection attack rate from 0.19 to 0.13 (relative risk [RR] 0.67) and 0.05 (RR 0.23), respectively. Postexposure prophylaxis prevented more infections per dose (118 and 323 daily doses needed to prevent 1 infection, respectively) and required fewer doses per season than continuous prophylaxis. If resistance to oseltamivir was increased, both prophylaxis strategies became less efficacious and efficient, but postexposure prophylaxis posed a lower selection pressure for resistant virus strains. Extension of prophylaxis to healthcare workers offered little additional protection to patients.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1547-1555
    Number of pages9
    JournalEmerging Infectious Diseases
    Volume15
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct-2009

    Keywords

    • RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL
    • RESISTANT INFLUENZA
    • MATHEMATICAL-MODEL
    • TRANSMISSION
    • VACCINE
    • OUTBREAKS
    • INSIGHTS
    • IMPACT
    • VIRUS
    • DRUGS

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