A Multicountry Analysis of Prevalence and Mortality among Neonates and Children with Bladder Exstrophy

Vijaya Kancherla, Lucita Tandaki, Manasvi Sundar, Anke Lux, Marian K Bakker, Jorieke Eh Bergman, Eva Bermejo-Sánchez, Mark A Canfield, Marcia L Feldkamp, Boris Groisman, Paula Hurtado-Villa, Karin Källén, Danielle Landau, Nathalie Lelong, Jorge Lopez-Camelo, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo, Margery Morgan, Osvaldo M Mutchinick, Amy E Nance, Wendy N NembhardAnna Pierini, Antonin Šípek, Erin B Stallings, Elena Szabova, Wladimir Wertelecki, Ignacio Zarante, Anke Rissmann

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OBJECTIVE:  Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a rare but severe birth defect affecting the lower abdominal wall and genitourinary system. The objective of the study is to examine the total prevalence, trends in prevalence, and age-specific mortality among individuals with BE.

STUDY DESIGN:  We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Data were analyzed from 20 birth defects surveillance programs, members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research in 16 countries. Live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) diagnosed with BE from 1974 to 2014. Pooled and program-specific prevalence of BE per 100,000 total births was calculated. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prevalence were estimated using Poisson approximation of binomial distribution. Time trends in prevalence of BE from 2000 to 2014 were examined using Poisson regression. Proportion of deaths among BE cases was calculated on the day of birth, day 2 to 6, day 7 to 27, day 28 to 364, 1 to 4 years, and ≥5 years. Mortality analysis was stratified by isolated, multiple, and syndromic case status.

RESULTS:  The pooled total prevalence of BE was 2.58 per 100,000 total births (95% CI = 2.40, 2.78) for study years 1974 to 2014. Prevalence varied over time with a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2014. The first-week mortality proportion was 3.5, 17.3, and 14.6% among isolated, multiple, and syndromic BE cases, respectively. The majority of first-week mortality occurred on the first day of life among isolated, multiple, and syndromic BE cases. The proportion of first-week deaths was higher among cases reported from programs in Latin America where ETOPFA services were not available.

CONCLUSIONS:  Prevalence of BE varied by program and showed a decreasing trend from 2000 to -2014. Mortality is a concern among multiple and syndromic cases, and a high proportion of deaths among cases occurred during the first week of life.

KEY POINTS: · Total prevalence of BE was 2.58 per 100,000 births.. · Prevalence decreased from 2000 to 2014.. · The first-week mortality was 9.3%..

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Perinatology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29-May-2022

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