A New Panel-Estimated GFR, Including beta(2)-Microglobulin and beta-Trace Protein and Not Including Race, Developed in a Diverse Population

CKD-EPI GFR Collaborators, Lesley A. Inker*, Sara J. Couture, Hocine Tighiouart, Alison G. Abraham, Gerald J. Beck, Harold Feldman, Tom Greene, Vilmundur Gudnason, Amy B. Karger, John H. Eckfeldt, Bertram L. Kasiske, Michael Mauer, Gerjan Navis, Emilio D. Poggio, Peter Rossing, Michael G. Shlipak, Andrew S. Levey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Rationale and Objective: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation based on creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) is more accurate than estimated GFR (eGFR) based on creatinine or cystatin C alone (eGFRcr or eGFRcys, respectively), but the inclusion of creatinine in eGFRcr-cys requires specification of a person's race. beta 2-Microglobulin (B2M) and beta-trace protein (BTP) are alternative filtration markers that appear to be less influenced by race than creatinine is.

Study Design: Study of diagnostic test accuracy.

Setting and Participants: Development in a pooled population of 7 studies with 5,017 participants with and without chronic kidney disease. External validation in a pooled population of 7 other studies with 2,245 participants. Tests Compared: Panel eGFR using B2M and BTP in addition to cystatin C (3-marker panel) or creatinine and cystatin C (4-marker panel) with and without age and sex or race. Outcomes: GFRmeasured as the urinary clearance of iothalamate, plasmaclearanceof iohexol, orplasma clearance of [Cr-51]EDTA.

Results: Mean measured GFRs were 58.1 and 83.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and the proportions of Black participants were 38.6% and 24.0%, in the development and validation populations, respectively. In development, addition of age and sex improved the performance of all equations compared with equations without age and sex, but addition of race did not further improve the performance. In validation, the 4-marker panels were more accurate than the 3-marker panels (P < 0.001). The 3-marker panel without race was more accurate than eGFRcys (percentage of estimates greater than 30% different from measured GFR [1-P30] of 15.6% vs 17.4%; P = 0.01), and the 4-marker panel without race was as accurate as eGFRcr-cys (1-P-30 of 8.6% vs 9.4%; P = 0.2). Results were generally consistent across subgroups.

Limitations: No representation of participants with severe comorbid illness and from geographic areas outside of North America and Europe.

Conclusions: The 4-marker panel eGFR is as accurate as eGFRcr-cys without requiring specification of race. A more accurate race-free eGFR could be an important advance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-683.e1
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume77
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May-2021

Keywords

  • GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE
  • RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM
  • SERUM CYSTATIN-C
  • RENAL-FUNCTION
  • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
  • ESTIMATING EQUATIONS
  • KIDNEY-FUNCTION
  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS
  • DIABETIC-PATIENTS
  • DUAL BLOCKADE

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