A Newly Developed Diabetes Risk Index, Based on Lipoprotein Subfractions and Branched Chain Amino Acids, is Associated with Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the PREVEND Cohort

Jose L. Flores-Guerrero*, Eke. G. Gruppen, Margery A. Connelly, Irina Shalaurova, James D. Otvos, Erwin Garcia, Stephan J. L. Bakker, Robin P. F. Dullaart

*Corresponding author for this work

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Objective: Evaluate the ability of a newly developed diabetes risk score, the Diabetes Risk Index (DRI), to predict incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in a large adult population. Methods: The DRI was developed by combining the Lipoprotein Insulin Resistance Index (LP-IR), calculated from 6 lipoprotein subspecies and size parameters, and the branched chain amino acids, valine and leucine, all of which have been shown previously to be associated with future T2D. DRI scores were calculated in a total of 6134 nondiabetic men and women in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of DRI scores with incident T2D. Results: During a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 306 new T2D cases were ascertained. In analyses adjusted for age and sex, there was a significant association between DRI scores and incident T2D with the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest versus lowest quartile being 12.07 (95% confidence interval: 6.97-20.89, p <0.001). After additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI), family history of T2D, alcohol consumption, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and HOMA-IR, the HR was attenuated but remained significant (HR 3.20 (1.73-5.95), p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained when DRI was analyzed as HR per 1 SD increase (HR 1.37 (1.14-1.65), p <0.001). The Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated that patients in the highest quartile of DRI scores presented at higher risk (p-value for log-rank test

Original languageEnglish
Article number2781
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep-2020


  • DRI
  • insulin resistance
  • LP-IR
  • branched chain amino acids
  • type 2 diabetes
  • biomarkers

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