A Phase Ib Study of the VEGF Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Tivozanib and Modified FOLFOX-6 in Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Malignancies

Corina N. Oldenhuis, Walter J. Loos, Brooke Esteves, Leni van Doorn, Monette M. Cotreau, Andrew L. Strahs, Martha W. den Hollander, Jourik A. Gietema, Elisabeth G. E. de Vries, Ferry A. L. M. Eskens*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Combining a modified (m)FOLFOX-6 (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil [5-FU], and 85 mg/kg(2) oxaliplatin) regimen with antiangiogenic therapy is a standard treatment option in advanced colorectal cancer. In this phase Ib study, safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 were assessed. Tivozanib could be combined at its recommended dose Of 1.5 mg with mFOLFOX-6, demonstrating antitumor activity, A randomized study in advanced colorectal Cancer comparing bevacizumab and tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 has been performed.

Background: Tivozanib hydrochloride (tivozanib) is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of all 3 vascular endothelial growth factor receptors with antitumor activity additive to 5-fluorouracil in preclinical models. This study was conducted to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PKs), and antitumor activity of escalating doses of tivozanib with a modified (m)FOLFOX-6 (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil [5-FU], and 85 mg/kg(2) oxaliplatin) regimen in patients with advanced gastrointestinal tumors. Patients and Methods: Tivozanib was administered orally once daily for 21 days in 28-day cycles, with mFOLFOX-6 administered every 14 days. Patients were allowed to continue tivozanib after discontinuation of mFOLFOX-6. Results: Thirty patients were assigned to tivozanib 0.5 mg (n = 9); 1.0 mg (n = 3); or 1.5 mg (n = 18) with mFOLFOX-6. Patients received a median of 5.2 (range, 0.03-26.9) months of tivozanib. DLTs were observed in 2 patients: Grade 3/4 transaminase level increases with tivozanib 0.5 mg, and Grade 3 dizziness with tivozanib 1.5 mg. Other Grade 3/4 adverse events included hypertension (n = 8); fatigue (n = 8), and neutropenia (n = 6): MTD for tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 was confirmed as 1.5 mg. No PK interactions between tivozanib and mFOLFOX-6 were observed. One patient had an ongoing clinical complete response, 10 had a partial response, and 11 obtained prolonged stable disease. Conclusion: Tivozanib and mFOLFOX-6 is feasible and appears to be safe. The recommended dose for tivozanib with mFOLFOX-6 is 1.5 mg/d. Observed clinical activity merits further exploration in gastrointestinal tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-24
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Colorectal Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar-2015


  • Angiogenesis
  • Clinical study
  • mFOLFOX-6
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Safety

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