Natural gas (with methane as its main component) provides an attractive energy source because of its large abundance and its high heat of combustion per mole of carbon dioxide generated. However, the emissions released from the conventional flame combustion (essentially NOx) have harmful impacts on the environment and the human health. Within the scope of rational and clean use of fossil energies, the catalytic combustion of natural gas appears as one of the most promising alternatives to flammable combustion. The presence of catalysts enables complete oxidation of methane at much lower temperatures (typically 500 °C), so that the formation of pollutants can be largely avoided. This work presents a literature review on the catalytic methane combustion. Various aspects are discussed including the catalyst types, the reaction mechanisms and kinetic characteristics, effects of various influencing operational factors and different reactor types proposed and tested. This paper may serve as an essential reference that contributes to the development of well-designed reactors, equipped with appropriate catalysts, and under well-handled operating conditions to realize the favorable (kinetic) performance, for their future applications and propagation in different industrial sectors.