A Standardized Light-Emitting Diode Device for Photoimmunotherapy

Esther de Boer, Jason M. Warram, Elmire Hartmans, Peter J. Bremer, Ben Bijl, Lucia M. A. Crane, Wouter B. Nagengast, Eben L. Rosenthal, Gooitzen M. van Dam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Antibody-based photodynamic therapy-photoimmunotherapy (PIT)-is an ideal modality to improve cancer treatment because of its selective and tumor-specific mode of therapy. Because the use of PIT for cancer treatment is continuing to be described, there is great need to characterize a standardized light source for PIT application. In this work, we designed and manufactured a light-emitting diode (LED)/PIT device and validated the technical feasibility, applicability, safety, and consistency of the system for cancer treatment. Methods: To outline the characteristics and photobiologic safety of the LED device, multiple optical measurements were performed in accordance with a photobiologic safety standard. A luciferase-transfected breast cancer cell line (2LMP-Luc) in combination with panitumumab-IRDye 700DX (pan-IR700) was used to validate the in vitro and in vivo performance of our LED device. Results: Testing revealed the light source to be safe, easy to use, and independent of illumination and power output (mW cm(-2)) variations overtime. For in vitro studies, an LED dose (2, 4, 6 J cm(-2))-dependent cytotoxicity was observed using propidium iodide exclusion and annexin V staining. Dose-dependent blebbing was also observed during microscopic analysis. Bioluminescence signals of tumors treated with 0.3 mg of pan-IR700 and 50 J cm(-2) decreased significantly (>80%) compared with signals of contralateral nontreated sites at 4 h and at 1 d after PIT. Conclusion: To our knowledge, a normalized and standardized LED device has not been explicitly described or developed. In this article, we introduce a standardized light source and validate its usability for PIT applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1893-1898
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Volume55
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2014

Keywords

  • photoimmunotherapy
  • standardization
  • breast cancer
  • NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOIMMUNOTHERAPY
  • PRINCIPLES PRIMER
  • CANCER CONCEPTS

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