Abnormal Fetal Growth: Small for Gestational Age, Fetal Growth Restriction, Large for Gestational Age: Definitions and Epidemiology

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    Abnormal fetal growth (growth restriction and overgrowth) is associated with perinatal morbidity, mortality, and lifelong risks to health. To describe abnormal growth, "small for gestational age" and "large for gestational age" are commonly used terms. However, both are statistical definitions of fetal size below or above a certain threshold related to a reference population, rather than referring to an abnormal condition. Fetuses can be constitutionally small or large and thus healthy, whereas fetuses with seemingly normal size can be growth restricted or overgrown. Although golden standards to detect abnormal growth are lacking, understanding of both pathologic conditions has improved significantly.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)267-279
    Number of pages13
    JournalObstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Jun-2021

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