OBJECTIVE: Liver X receptor (LXR) activators decrease atherosclerosis in mice. LXR activators (1) directly upregulate genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport and (2) exert anti-inflammatory effects mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-κB target genes. We investigated whether myeloid cell deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1/G1), principal targets of LXR that promote macrophage cholesterol efflux and initiate reverse cholesterol transport, would abolish the beneficial effects of LXR activation on atherosclerosis.
APPROACH AND RESULTS: LXR activator T0901317 substantially reduced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages lacking ABCA1/G1. Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) or wild-type bone marrow (BM) and fed a Western-type diet for 6 weeks with or without T0901317 supplementation. Abca1/g1 BM deficiency increased atherosclerotic lesion complexity and inflammatory cell infiltration into the adventitia and myocardium. T0901317 markedly decreased lesion area, complexity, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Abca1(-/-)Abcg1(-/-) BM-transplanted mice. To investigate whether this was because of macrophage Abca1/g1 deficiency, Ldlr(-/-) mice were transplanted with LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) or Abca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) BM and fed Western-type diet with or without the more specific LXR agonist GW3965 for 12 weeks. GW3965 decreased lesion size in both groups, and the decrease was more prominent in the LysmCreAbca1(fl/fl)Abcg1(fl/fl) group.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of LXR activators are of key importance to their antiatherosclerotic effects in vivo independent of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by macrophage ABCA1/G1. This has implications for the development of LXR activators that lack adverse effects on lipogenic genes while maintaining the ability to transrepress inflammatory genes.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology|
|Publication status||Published - Feb-2014|
- ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1/deficiency
- ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily G, Member 1
- ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/deficiency
- Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
- Aorta/drug effects
- Biological Transport
- Bone Marrow Transplantation
- Disease Models, Animal
- Gene Expression Regulation
- Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated/pharmacology
- Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
- Liver X Receptors
- Macrophages/drug effects
- Mice, Inbred C57BL
- Mice, Knockout
- Orphan Nuclear Receptors/agonists
- Receptors, LDL/deficiency