Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with the abrupt loss of kidney function. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of AKI. Free thiols (R-SH) are crucial components of the extracellular antioxidant machinery and reliably reflect systemic oxidative stress. Lower levels of thiols represent higher levels of oxidative stress. In this preliminary study, we hypothesized that plasma-free thiols are associated with AKI upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). In this study, 301 critically ill patients were included. Plasma samples were taken upon admission, and albumin-adjusted plasma-free thiols were determined. Albumin-adjusted plasma-free thiols were lower in patients with AKI (n = 43, median (interquartile range) 7.28 µmol/g (3.52, 8.95)) compared to patients without AKI (8.50 µmol/g (5.82, 11.28); p < 0.05) upon admission to the ICU. Higher age (B = −0.72), higher levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (B = −0.002), creatinine (B = −0.01) and lower serum albumin (B = 0.47) were associated with lower free thiol levels. Further, albumin-adjusted free thiol levels were significantly reduced in patients with sepsis (8.30 (5.52–10.64) µmol/g) compared to patients without sepsis (6.95 (3.72–8.92) µmol/g; p < 0.05). Together, albumin-adjusted plasma-free thiols were significantly reduced in patients with AKI and patients with sepsis compared with patients without AKI and sepsis.