Adaptation and validation of the HIV Knowledge Questionnaire-18 for the general population of Indonesia

Bustanul Arifin*, M. Rifqi Rokhman, Zulkarnain Zulkarnain, Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Marianti Manggau, Saidah Rauf, Rasuane Noor, Retna Siwi Padmawati, Maarten J. Postma, Muhammad Nasrum Massi, Jurjen van der Schans

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background Despite a global decline in new HIV/AIDS cases in low-middle countries, cases are increasing in Indonesia. Low knowledge about the disease among the general population is one of the major factors responsible for this trend. Indonesia does not have a validated instrument to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge. The HIV Knowledge Questionnaire-18 (HIV-KQ-18) has been translated into several languages and is one of the most extensively used instruments for assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge. This paper describes the process of adapting and validating the HIV-KQ-18, an instrument to assess the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge in the general population of Indonesia. Methods In the adaptation phase, feedback for the initial Bahasa Indonesia version was gathered from two HIV activists, an obstetrician, two general practitioners, and 60 pilot participants. At the validation stage, we distributed the instrument link via Google Form to 6 major regions in Indonesia. Validity was measured using known-group validity and construct validity. The construct validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a polychoric correlation matrix. Cronbach's alpha was used to analyze the internal consistency. Results Based on the findings in the adaptation phase, additional descriptions (namely synonyms or examples) were added to 6 items to make them more understandable. In the validation phase, 1,249 participants were recruited. The a priori hypothesis in known-group validity was supported. We also found three items that did not meet the construct validity. Based on the acceleration factor approach to interpret the scree tree in the factor analysis, using only two factors was preferable. Cronbach's alpha values were 0.75 and 0.71 representing good internal reliability. Conclusion The HIV-KQ-18 Bahasa Indonesia is considered a valid and reliable instrument to assess the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number55
Number of pages12
JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2-Apr-2022


  • Infectious disease
  • Education
  • Psychometric properties
  • General population
  • Instrumental study

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