Adjuvants are key components in vaccines, they help in reducing the required antigen dose but also modulate the phenotype of the induced immune response. We previously showed that GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, enhances antigen-specific mucosal and systemic antibody responses to influenza subunit and whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine administered via the pulmonary route. However, the impact of the GPI-0100 dose on immune stimulation and the immune mechanisms stimulated by GPI-0100 along with antigen are poorly understood. Therefore, in this study we immunized C57BL/6 mice via the pulmonary route with vaccine consisting of WIV combined with increasing amounts of GPI-0100, formulated as a dry powder. Adjuvantation of WIV enhanced influenza-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses, with intermediate doses of 5 and 7.5 μg GPI-0100 being most effective. The predominant antibody subtype induced by GPI-0100-adjuvanted vaccine was IgG1. Compared to non-adjuvanted vaccine, GPI-0100-adjuvanted WIV vaccine gave rise to higher numbers of antigen-specific IgA- but not IgG-producing B cells in the lungs along with better mucosal and systemic memory B cell responses. The GPI-0100 dose was negatively correlated with the number of influenza-specific IFNγ- and IL17-producing T cells and positively correlated with the number of IL4-producing T cells observed after immunization and challenge. Overall, our results show that adjuvantation of pulmonary-delivered WIV with GPI-0100 mostly affects B cell responses and effectively induces B cell memory.
- Journal Article
- INNATE IMMUNITY