Albuminuria and markers for cardiovascular risk in 12-year-olds from the general Dutch population: a cross-sectional study

Valentina Gracchi*, Sophie M van den Belt, Eva Corpeleijn, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Henkjan J Verkade

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

In adults, albuminuria represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with hypertension and obesity. Pediatric data from the general population are inconsistent and largely based on randomly collected urine. A possible association between antenatal programming and albuminuria at school age has still to be investigated. The purpose of this study is to assess albuminuria in first morning void urine samples in a population-based pediatric cohort and to investigate cross-sectionally the association with factors related to cardiovascular risk. Moreover, we investigate the possible association of antenatal factors with albuminuria. A first morning void urine sample was collected in the population-based GECKO (Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity) Drenthe cohort at the age of 12 years. We investigated cross-sectionally associations between albuminuria and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) and antenatal factors. The prevalence of U ACR (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio) ≥ 3 mg/mmol was 3.3% (95%CI 2.3-4.2). In a multivariate linear regression model, U AC was negatively associated with z-BMI (β-0.08, p = 0.013) and positively with z-systolic BP (β 0.09, p = 0.006), model significance p = 0.002. U ACR was negatively associated with z-BMI (β - 0.13, p < 0.001) and positively with z-diastolic BP (β 0.09, p = 0.003), model significance p = 0.001. Albuminuria was not significantly associated with antenatal factors such as gestational age and standardized birth weight.

CONCLUSIONS: Albuminuria in first morning void urine in 12-year-olds has a lower prevalence than previously reported by randomly collected samples. A negative association between albuminuria and BMI is confirmed. A positive association with blood pressure, but no association with antenatal factors was found.

WHAT IS KNOWN: • While, in adults, albuminuria is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with hypertension and obesity, pediatric data are inconsistent and largely based on randomly collected urine. • A possible association between antenatal programming and albuminuria at school age has still to be investigated.

WHAT IS NEW: • In this population study on first morning void urine samples from 12-year-olds of the general population, albuminuria is negatively associated with body mass index, and positively associated with blood pressure, while there is no association with antenatal factors. • The prevalence of albuminuria at 12 years is lower than previously reported in studies based on randomly collected urine samples, probably due to elimination of orthostatic proteinuria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4921-4929
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pediatrics
Volume182
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2023

Keywords

  • Pregnancy
  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Female
  • Child
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Albuminuria/epidemiology
  • Hypertension/etiology
  • Obesity/complications
  • Heart Disease Risk Factors
  • Creatinine/urine

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