Albuminuria Is an Appropriate Therapeutic Target in Patients with CKD: The Pro View

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Abstract

The presence of elevated levels of albuminuria is associated with an increased risk of progressive renal function loss over time. This association is found in various pathophysiological conditions, including diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and various primary renal diseases, but also, the general, otherwise healthy population. Emerging data report that elevated albuminuria causes tubulointerstitial damage through activation of proinflammatory mediators, which ultimately leads to a progressive decline in renal function. Nowadays, various drugs are available that decrease the rate of GFR loss in patients with kidney disease. Well known are renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, but there are also other drugs and interventions, like intensive glucose control, anti-inflammatory agents (pentoxifylline), or a low-protein diet. These interventions have an additional effect beyond their original target, namely lowering albuminuria. Analyses from clinical trials show that the reduction in albuminuria observed during the first months of treatment with these drugs correlates with the degree of long-term renal protection: the larger the initial reduction in albuminuria, the lower the risk of ESRD during treatment. In addition, in treated patients, residual albuminuria is again the strongest risk marker for renal disease progression. These observations combined provide a strong argument that albuminuria is an appropriate therapeutic target in patients with CKD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1079-1088
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun-2015

Keywords

  • PROXIMAL TUBULE CELLS
  • CHRONIC RENAL-DISEASE
  • DIETARY-PROTEIN RESTRICTION
  • TYPE-2 DIABETES-MELLITUS
  • KIDNEY-DISEASE
  • EPITHELIAL-CELLS
  • GLOMERULAR-DISEASE
  • SODIUM-INTAKE
  • END-POINTS
  • PROGRESSION

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