Altered brain connectivity in hyperkinetic movement disorders: A review of resting-state fMRI

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Abstract

Background: Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMD) manifest as abnormal and uncontrollable movements. Despite reported involvement of several neural circuits, exact connectivity profiles remain elusive. Objectives: Providing a comprehensive literature review of resting-state brain connectivity alterations using resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). We additionally discuss alterations from the perspective of brain networks, as well as correlations between connectivity and clinical measures. Methods: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and searching PubMed until October 2022. Rs-fMRI studies addressing ataxia, chorea, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, tremor, and functional movement disorders (FMD) were included. The standardized mean difference was used to summarize findings per region in the Automated Anatomical Labeling atlas for each phenotype. Furthermore, the activation likelihood estimation meta-analytic method was used to analyze convergence of significant between-group differences per phenotype. Finally, we conducted hierarchical cluster analysis to provide additional insights into commonalities and differences across HMD phenotypes. Results: Most articles concerned tremor (51), followed by dystonia (46), tics (19), chorea (12), myoclonus (11), FMD (11), and ataxia (8). Altered resting-state connectivity was found in several brain regions: in ataxia mainly cerebellar areas; for chorea, the caudate nucleus; for dystonia, sensorimotor and basal ganglia regions; for myoclonus, the thalamus and cingulate cortex; in tics, the basal ganglia, cerebellum, insula, and frontal cortex; for tremor, the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit; finally, in FMD, frontal, parietal, and cerebellar regions. Both decreased and increased connectivity were found for all HMD. Significant spatial convergence was found for dystonia, FMD, myoclonus, and tremor. Correlations between clinical measures and resting-state connectivity were frequently described. Conclusion: Key brain regions contributing to functional connectivity changes across HMD often overlap. Possible increases and decreases of functional connections of a specific region emphasize that HMD should be viewed as a network disorder. Despite the complex interplay of physiological and methodological factors, this review serves to gain insight in brain connectivity profiles across HMD phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103302
JournalNeuroImage: Clinical
Volume37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2023

Keywords

  • Brain networks
  • Hyperkinetic movement disorders
  • Pathophysiology
  • Resting state fMRI
  • Review

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