Androgens and Development of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus in Male Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Prospective Study

TransplantLines Investigators, Suzanne P Stam*, Sara Sokooti, Michele F Eisenga, Anna van der Veen, António W Gomes-Neto, Peter R van Dijk, Jelmer J van Zanden, Michel J Vos, Ido P Kema, André P van Beek, Stephan J Bakker

*Corresponding author for this work

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OBJECTIVE: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) effects up to 30% of all kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Recent studies in mice found that sufficient androgen levels are necessary for β-cell health and adequate insulin secretion. This raises the question whether a similar relationship might be present in KTR. Hence, we hypothesized that dihydrotestosterone and testosterone are associated with the development of PTDM in male KTR.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analyses of a prospective single-center cohort study including adult male KTR with a functioning graft ≥1 year posttransplantation. Androgen levels were assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Development of PTDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association's criteria.

RESULTS: We included 243 male KTR (aged 51 ± 14 years), with a median dihydrotestosterone 0.9 (0.7-1.3) nmol/L and testosterone of 12.1 (9.4-15.8) nmol/L. During 5.3 (3.7-5.8) years of follow-up, 28 KTR (11.5%) developed PTDM. A clear association was observed, as 15 (19%), 10 (12%), and 3 (4%) male KTR developed PTDM in the respective tertiles of dihydrotestosterone (P = 0.008). In Cox regression analyses, both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone as continuous variables were inversely associated with the risk to development PTDM, independent of glucose and HbA1c (hazard ratio [HR] 0.31 [95%CI 0.16-0.59], P < 0.001; and HR 0.32 [95%CI 0.15-0.68], P = 0.003, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that low androgen levels are a novel potential modifiable risk factor for the development of PTDM in male KTR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2683–2690
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number12
Early online date14-Oct-2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2021

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