Background: Diabetes is associated with impaired neovascularization leading to reduced revascularization of ischemic tissue and impaired wound healing. Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes were previously shown to be numerically reduced and functionally impaired. We hypothesize that diabetes also has a long-term effect on angiogenic cells residing in the vessel wall. To test this hypothesis, angiogenic sprout formation from ex vitro cultured aortic rings isolated from diabetic and non-diabetic BioBreeding (BB) rats was assessed.
Methods: Diabetes prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes were suboptimally treated with insulin by subcutaneous implantation of slow-release insulin-pellets. Neonatally thymectomized BBDP rats, pre-diabetic BBDP rats and diabetes resistant BBDR rats served as non-diabetic controls. After follow-up thoracic aortas were harvested and cultured in vitro in Matrigel to induce sprout formation. Sprout length was quantified after 4, 7, 10 and 14 days of culture. The total number of sprout-derived cells was measured and in vitro proliferative capacity of sprout cells was quantified. Finally, expression of Flk-1, CD31 and smooth muscle a-actin on sprout cells was determined.
Results: Mean blood glucose levels in diabetics were significantly elevated compared with non-diabetics. Both long-term and short-term diabetes significantly reduced sprout formation (p
Conclusions: Diabetes in BB rats impairs angiogenic sprouting from cells residing in the vascular wall, independent of effects on circulating cells or circulating angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors. The angiogenic impairment of diabetic sprout cells is, to some extent, imprinted upon the cells. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- endothelial cell sprouting
- angiogenesis model