Antenatal depression and antidepressants during pregnancy: Unraveling the complex interactions for the offspring

Jocelien D. A. Olivier*, Helena Akerud, Inger Sundstrom Poromaa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During pregnancy the risk for a woman to develop a depressive episode is as high as 20%. Antenatal depression is not harmless for the developing child as several changes, including neurodevelopmental alterations, have been reported. Sometimes it is unavoidable to treat a pregnant mother with antidepressants, especially when she is suicidal. Currently, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRls) are the pharmacological choice of antidepressant treatment. SSRIs do not cause gross teratogenic alterations and are generally considered safe for use in pregnancy. However, although SSRls may relieve the maternal symptoms, they definitively cross the placenta partially influencing the neurodevelopment of the fetus. In this review an overview is given of the effects on the offspring of maternal antenatal depression and the putative neurodevelopmental effects of SSRI treatment during pregnancy. Although we primarily focus on human data, some animal data are discussed to describe possible mechanisms on how SSRls are affecting underlying biological mechanisms associated with depression. In summary, maternal depression may have long-lasting effects on the offspring, whereas prenatal SSRI exposure also increases the risk for long-lasting effects. It remains to be determined whether the effects found after SSRI treatment in pregnant women are only due to the SSRI exposure or if the underlying depression is also contributing to these effects. The possibility of epigenetic alterations as one of the underlying mechanisms that is altered by SSRI exposure is discussed. However much more research in this area is needed to explain the exact role of epigenetic mechanisms in SSRI exposure during pregnancy. (C) 2014 Elsevier BA/. All rights reserved,

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-262
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
Volume753
Early online date2-Aug-2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15-Apr-2015

Keywords

  • Antenatal depressro
  • Antidepressants
  • SSRI
  • Pregnancy
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Epigenetics
  • SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
  • EXPOSED IN-UTERO
  • 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE TYPE-1
  • CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE
  • CORTICOSTEROID-BINDING GLOBULIN
  • MATERNAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS
  • NATIONAL-COMORBIDITY-SURVEY
  • AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS
  • PROMOTER GENOTYPE SLC6A4
  • INFANT TEMPERAMENT

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