Antibody-independent functions of B cells during viral infections

Vinit Upasani, Izabela Rodenhuis-Zybert, Tineke Cantaert*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)
    18 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    The humoral immune response and antibody-mediated functions of B cells during viral infections are well described. However, we have limited understanding of antibody-independent B cell functions, such as cytokine production and antigen presentation, in acute and chronic viral infections and their role in protection and/or immunopathogenesis. Here, we summarize the current literature on these antibody-independent B cell functions and identify remaining knowledge gaps. B cell subsets produce anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can have both beneficial and detrimental effects during viral clearance. As professional antigen presenting cells, B cells also play an important role in immune regulation/shaping of the developing adaptive immune responses. Since B cells primarily express TLR7 and TLR9, we specifically discuss the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated B cell responses to viral infections and their role in augmenting adaptive immunity through enhanced cytokine production and antigen presentation. However, viruses have evolved strategies to subvert TLR signaling and additional stimulation via B cell receptor (BCR) may be required to overcome the defective TLR response in B cells. To conclude, antibody-independent B cell functions seem to have an important role in regulating both acute and chronic viral infections and may form the basis for novel therapeutic approaches in treatment of viral infections in the future.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1009708
    Number of pages17
    JournalPLoS Pathogens
    Volume17
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul-2021

    Keywords

    • SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS
    • I INTERFERON RESPONSE
    • TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS
    • SECRETE GRANZYME-B
    • IMMUNE-RESPONSES
    • T-CELLS
    • DISEASE
    • DIFFERENTIATION
    • LYMPHOTOXIN
    • LYMPHOCYTES

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