Antioxidative Molecules in Human Milk and Environmental Contaminants

Stefano Lorenzetti, Torsten Ploesch, Inga C. Teller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

Breastfeeding provides overall beneficial health to the mother-child dyad and is universally recognized as the preferred feeding mode for infants up to 6-months and beyond. Human milk provides immuno-protection and supplies nutrients and bioactive compounds whose concentrations vary with lactation stage. Environmental and dietary factors potentially lead to excessive chemical exposure in critical windows of development such as neonatal life, including lactation. This review discusses current knowledge on these environmental and dietary contaminants and summarizes the known effects of these chemicals in human milk, taking into account the protective presence of antioxidative molecules. Particular attention is given to short- and long-term effects of these contaminants, considering their role as endocrine disruptors and potential epigenetic modulators. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps and indicate potential future research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number550
Number of pages37
JournalAntioxidants
Volume10
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr-2021

Keywords

  • breastfeeding
  • milk composition
  • MFGM
  • trace elements
  • lactoferrin
  • melatonin
  • xenobiotics
  • man-made chemicals
  • endocrine disruptors
  • epigenetic modulators
  • HUMAN BREAST-MILK
  • PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
  • FULL-TERM INFANTS
  • VITAMIN-E
  • PERFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES
  • ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR
  • MELATONIN
  • EXPOSURE
  • MOTHERS
  • FAT

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