Anxiety disorders and CRP in a population cohort study with 54326 participants: The LifeLines study

Petrus J. W. Naudé, Annelieke M. Roest, Dan J. Stein, Peter de Jonge, Bennard Doornbos

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Abstract

Objectives - Growing evidence indicates that inflammatory processes may play a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the involvement of inflammation, including C-reactive protein (CRP), in specific anxiety disorders. This study examines the relation between anxiety disorders and CRP. Methods - Associations of serum CRP with anxiety disorders were determined in a large population study (n = 54,326 participants, mean age = 47 years; 59% female), the LifeLines cohort. Depressive and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and agoraphobia without panic disorder) were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results - Anxiety disorders, with the exception of social anxiety disorder, were significantly associated with increased CRP. After adjusting for demographics, life-style factors, health factors, medication use, depression, and psychological stressors, CRP remained significantly associated with panic disorder with agoraphobia (beta = 0.01, p = 0.013). Moreover, CRP levels were significantly higher in people with panic disorder with agoraphobia compared to other anxiety disorders, independent of all covariates (F = 3.00, df = 4, p = 0.021). Conclusions - Panic disorder with agoraphobia is associated with increased CRP, although the effect size of this association is small. This indicates that neuroinflammatory mechanisms may play a potential role in its pathophysiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-470
Number of pages10
JournalThe World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Volume19
Issue number6
Early online date29-Jan-2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • social anxiety disorder
  • panic disorder
  • inflammation
  • agoraphobia
  • C-REACTIVE PROTEIN
  • NATIONAL COMORBIDITY SURVEY
  • MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • PANIC DISORDER
  • GENERALIZED ANXIETY
  • PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY
  • THREATENING EXPERIENCES
  • POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • LIFE EVENTS

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