The diagnostics of pain in older people with cognitive impairments should always consist of a subjective self-report of pain and a structured observation of pain behavior. It is important to note that the subjective self-report of pain becomes less valid with increasing cognitive decline (starting with a moderate degree of dementia). The external observation of pain behavior should include at least the three behavioral domains facial expressions, body movements and vocalization and should be performed during resting situations and during activities of daily living. Moreover, the patient should be observed for at least 3 min. Online forms of training have recently been developed and are freely available for training in external observation.