PURPOSE: Respiratory impacts in pencil beam scanned proton therapy (PBS-PT) are accounted by extensive 4D dose calculations, where deformable image registration (DIR) is necessary for estimating deformation vector fields (DVFs). We aim here to evaluate the dosimetric errors induced by different DIR algorithms in their resulting 4D dose calculations by using ground truth(GT)-DVFs from 4DMRI.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six DIR methods: ANACONDA, Morfeus, B-splines, Demons, CT Deformable, and Total Variation, were respectively applied to nine 4DCT-MRI liver data sets. The derived DVFs were then used as input for 4D dose calculation. The DIR induced dosimetric error was assessed by individually comparing the resultant 4D dose distributions to those obtained with GT-DVFs. Both single-/three-field plans and single/rescanned strategies were investigated.
RESULTS: Differences in 4D dose distributions among different DIR algorithms, and compared to the results using GT-DVFs, were pronounced. Up to 40 % of clinically relevant dose calculation points showed dose differences of 10 % or more between the GT. Differences in V95(CTV) reached up to 11.34 ± 12.57 %. The dosimetric errors became in general less substantial when applying multiple-field plans or using rescanning.
CONCLUSION: Intrinsic geometric errors by DIR can influence the clinical evaluation of liver 4D PBS-PT plans. We recommend the use of an error bar for correctly interpreting individual 4D dose distributions.
- Liver cancer
- Pencil beam scanned proton therapy
- Deformable image registration
- Deformation vector field
- 4DCT-MRI data sets
- 4D dose calculation
- DOSE ACCUMULATION
- MOVING TARGETS