Associations of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid with risk factors for coronary heart disease

WJE Bemelmans*, FAJ Muskiet, EJM Feskens, JHM de Vries, J Broer, JF May, B Meyboom-de Jong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in high-risk subjects.

Objective: To investigate the associations of dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) as assessed by food frequency questionnaire and in the plasma cholesteryl ester (CE), with CHD risk factors.

Design: Baseline data of a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Subjects have hypercholesterolemia (6.0-8.0 mmol/l) and at least two other CHD risk factors (n = 266).

Results: The reported dietary ALA and LA intakes and the LA/ALA ratio were associated with the contents in the CE (r = 0.37, r = 0.21, and r = 0.42, respectively; P <0.01). In multivariate analysis, CE ALA was inversely associated with diastolic blood pressure (r = - 0.13; P <0.05) and positively with serum triacylglycerol (r = 0.13; P <0.05), and CE LA was inversely associated with serum triacylglycerol (r = - 0.32; P <0.01). The CE LA/ALA ratio was strongly inversely associated with CE ALA (r = - 0.95; P <0.01). In the lowest quintile of CE ALA, mean dietary intake was 0.4 energy % ALA (1.2 g/day), 8.4 energy % LA and an LA/ALA ratio of 21, and in the highest quintile 0.6 energy % ALA (1.7 g/day), 6.8 energy % LA and 12 (ratio). In the lowest quintile of CE ALA the diastolic blood pressure was 4 mmHg lower (P trend <0.05), and the serum triacylglycerol 0.3 mmol/l higher (P trend NS) when compared with the top quintile.

Conclusions: In a CHD high-risk population with LA-rich background diet, these cross-sectional data suggest that replacing LA in the diet by ALA may decrease diastolic blood pressure, and may increase serum triacylglycerol concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)865-871
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume54
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2000

Keywords

  • alpha-linolenic acid
  • linoleic acid
  • plasma cholesteryl ester
  • CHD risk factors
  • blood pressure
  • serum triacylglycerol
  • FAT-MODIFIED DIETS
  • MIDDLE-AGED MEN
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE
  • SERUM-LIPIDS
  • YOUNG-ADULTS
  • CHOLESTEROL
  • ESTERS
  • N-6
  • HYPERTENSION
  • HISTORY

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