Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

Aisling Mulligan*, Richard J. L. Anney, Myra O'Regan, Wai Chen, Louise Butler, Michael Fitzgerald, Jan Buitelaar, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Aribert Rothenberger, Ruud Minderaa, Judith Nijmeijer, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Robert D. Oades, Herbert Roeyers, Cathelijne Buschgens, Hanna Christiansen, Barbara Franke, Isabel Gabriels, Catharina Hartman, Jonna KuntsiRafaela Marco, Sheera Meidad, Ueli Mueller, Lamprini Psychogiou, Nanda Rommelse, Margaret Thompson, Henrik Uebel, Tobias Banaschewski, Richard Ebstein, Jacques Eisenberg, Iris Manor, Ana Miranda, Fernando Mulas, Joseph Sergeant, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Phil Asherson, Stephen V. Faraone, Michael Gill

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    161 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2-4 were intermediate; Class 5(7%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)197-209
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
    Volume39
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb-2009

    Keywords

    • ADHD
    • Autism
    • Familiality
    • Oppositional disorders
    • Motor disorder
    • Language disorder
    • DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
    • PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER
    • CHILDRENS-COMMUNICATION-CHECKLIST
    • SPECTRUM DISORDERS
    • GENERAL-POPULATION
    • SOCIAL DISABILITY
    • TWIN SAMPLE
    • QUESTIONNAIRE
    • COMORBIDITY

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