Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are known to have a high cardio-vascular disease (CVD) burden only partly explained by traditional CVD risk factors. The aim of this paper was therefore to determine: i) the prognostic value of autoantibodies against apoA-1 (anti-apoA-1 IgG) for incidence of CVD mortality, all-cause mortality and graft failure in RTR. Four hundred and sixty two (462) prospectively included RTRs were followed for 7.0 years. Baseline anti-apoA-1 IgG were determined and associations with incidence of CVD mortality (n = 48), all-cause mortality (n = 92) and graft failure (n = 39) were tested. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated significant associations between tertiles of anti-apoA-1 IgG and CVD mortality (log rank test: p = 0.048). Adjusted Cox regression analysis showed a 54% increase in risk for CVD mortality for each anti-apoA-1 IgG levels standard deviation increase (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.54, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.14-2.05, p = 0.005), and a 33% increase for all-cause mortality (HR: 1.33; 95%CI: 1.06-1.67, p = 0.01), independent of CVD risk factors, renal function and HDL function. The association with all-cause mortality disappeared after excluding cases of CVD specific mortality. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of anti-apoA-1 positivity for CVD mortality were 18.0%, 89.3%, 17.0%, and 90.0%, respectively. HDL functionality was not associated with anti-apoA-1 IgG levels. This prospective study demonstrates that in RTR, anti-apoA-1 IgG are independent predictors of CVD mortality and are not associated with HDL functionality.