Biocompatibility and degradation comparisons of four biodegradable copolymeric osteosynthesis systems used in maxillofacial surgery: A goat model with four years follow-up

Barzi Gareb*, Nico B. van Bakelen, Léon Driessen, Pieter Buma, Jeroen Kuipers, Dirk W. Grijpma, Arjan Vissink, Ruud R.M. Bos, Baucke van Minnen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Applying biodegradable osteosyntheses avoids the disadvantages of titanium osteosyntheses. However, foreign-body reactions remain a major concern and evidence of complete resorption is lacking. This study compared the physico-chemical properties, histological response and radiographs of four copolymeric biodegradable osteosynthesis systems in a goat model with 48-months follow-up. The systems were implanted subperiosteally in both tibia and radius of 12 Dutch White goats. The BioSorb FX [poly(70LLA-co-30DLLA)], Inion CPS [poly([70-78.5]LLA-co-[16-24]DLLA-co-4TMC)], SonicWeld Rx [poly(DLLA)], LactoSorb [poly(82LLA-co-18GA)] systems and a negative control were randomly implanted in each extremity. Samples were assessed at 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month follow-up. Surface topography was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography were performed on initial and explanted samples. Histological sections were systematically assessed by two blinded researchers using (polarized) light microscopy, SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The SonicWeld Rx system was amorphous while the others were semi-crystalline. Foreign-body reactions were not observed during the complete follow-up. The SonicWeld Rx and LactoSorb systems reached bone percentages of negative controls after 18 months while the BioSorb Fx and Inion CPS systems reached these levels after 36 months. The SonicWeld Rx system showed the most predictable degradation profile. All the biodegradable systems were safe to use and well-tolerated (i.e., complete implant replacement by bone, no clinical or histological foreign body reactions, no [sterile] abscess formation, no re-interventions needed), but nanoscale residual polymeric fragments were observed at every system's assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-456
Number of pages18
JournalBioactive Materials
Volume17
Early online date1-Jan-2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1-Jan-2022

Keywords

  • Biocompatible materials
  • Absorbable implants
  • Polymers
  • Orthopaedic fixation devices
  • Reconstructive surgical procedures
  • Fracture fixation
  • FOREIGN-BODY REACTION
  • POLY-L-LACTIDE
  • POLY(L-LACTIDE) BONE PLATES
  • IN-VIVO
  • TISSUE-RESPONSE
  • INTERNAL-FIXATION
  • GIANT-CELLS
  • MACROPHAGE PLASTICITY
  • MANDIBULAR FRACTURES
  • METALLIC SCREWS

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