AIM: To compare biomarker levels in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) of healthy implants with levels in PICF of implants with peri-implantitis (before and after non-surgical treatment).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were taken from 20 healthy implants (n=17 patients) and from 20 implants with peri-implantitis (n=19 patients) before and 3 months after non-surgical treatment using the Airflow Master Piezon® (EMS). A LuminexTM assay was used to evaluate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 & G-CSF, collagen degradation enzyme MMP-8, chemokines MCP-1 & MIP-1α/CCL3, bone markers OPG & sRANKL and interferon-γ. Clinical and radiographical characteristics were assessed. A Mann-Witney U and Wilcoxon signed-rank test analysed between and within group differences.
RESULTS: IL-1β and MMP-8 levels were found significantly elevated in implants with peri-implantitis (p= .007; p=< .001, respectively). No difference in levels of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1α/CCL3, OPG & G-CSF between healthy and diseased implants were found. Levels of sRANKL and INF-γ were under the level of detection. None of the biomarker levels improved after non-surgical therapy, levels of IL-1β and MMP-8 remained high.
CONCLUSION: Implants diagnosed with peri-implantitis have higher levels of IL-1β and MMP-8 in PICF compared to healthy implants. Non-surgical therapy did not influence the inflammatory immune response.