The demand for solid organs is increasing worldwide, regenerative medicine aims to develop organs that can replace their human counterparts. In this regard, this study describes a novel biomimetic-based methodology for the incorporation of microducts in 3D bacterial nanocellulose (BNC-3D) biomaterials. Although BNC is a biomaterial that has been used as a scaffold for cell culture purposes, it does not have the microduct structure that solid organs required to maintain cell viability. This study aims to biomimicry the microduct structure (blood vessels) in BNC using a corroded porcine kidney in epoxy resin during BNC synthesis. The resin mold was incorporated into the biological process of producing BNC-3D. After the BNC fermentation, the resin was removed using a novel method (acid hydrolysis) to expose the blood vessels constructs. BNC-3D and BNC-3D with microducts (BNC-3DM) were analyzed using electronic microscopy, infrared analysis, thermogravimetric and biological analysis. Results show that biomaterials biomimicry the blood vessels of the reference organ, moreover, the BNC chemical and morphological properties of BNC was not affected in the biomimetic process. Regarding cell behavior, cell viability was not affected by the incorporation of the microducts, and it was proven that viable cells adhere to the microducts surface, reproducing their shape and migrate into the biomaterial up to 245 mu m for 8 days of culture. To conclude, the data demonstrate the potential of biomimetic in BNC for regenerative medicine, in which the microducts transport fluids (blood, nutrients, and waste products) from and to engineered solid organs via animal counterparts. Graphic abstract The graphical abstract represents the structural modification of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) with the inclusion of microducts and microporosities. Furthermore, it represents the usefulness of the microducts in future applications, where, they can be used for nutrients inlet to feed the cells and to remove the wastes from the developed tissue, same as do the blood vessels.
- Bacterial nanocellulose
- Regenerative medicine
- Three-dimensional biomaterials