Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

Syam S. Andra*, Pantelis Charisiadis, Manish Arora, Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Konstantinos C. Makris

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (Cl(x)BPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to Cl(x)BPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of Cl(x)BPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of Cl(x)BPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with Cl(x)BPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of Cl(x)BPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly-in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of Cl(x)BPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-379
Number of pages28
JournalEnvironment international
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2015

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