Body mass index and body fat distribution as renal risk factors: a focus on the role of renal haemodynamics

Arjan J. Kwakernaak*, Tsjitske J. Toering, Gerjan Navis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Weight excess and/or central body fat distribution are associated with increased long-term renal risk, not only in subjects with renal disease or renal transplant recipients, but also in the general population. As the prevalence of weight excess is rising worldwide, this may become a main renal risk factor on a population basis, even more so because the risk extends to the overweight range. Understanding the mechanisms of this detrimental effect of weight excess on the kidneys is needed in order to design preventive treatment strategies. The increased risk associated with weight excess is partly attributed to associated comorbid conditions, such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes; however, current evidence supports a direct pathogenetic role for renal haemodynamics as well. Weight excess is associated with an altered renal haemodynamic profile, i.e. an increased glomerular filtration rate relative to effective renal plasma flow, resulting in an increased filtration fraction (FF). This renal haemodynamic profile is considered to reflect glomerular hyperfiltration and glomerular hypertension, resulting from a dysbalance between afferent and efferent arterial vasomotor balance. This unfavorable renal haemodynamic profile was found to be associated with renal outcome in experimental models and in human renal transplant recipients, and is associated with a blunted sodium excretion, and reversible by weight loss, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade or by dietary sodium restriction. More recent evidence showed that a central body fat distribution is also associated with an increased FF, even independent of overall weight excess. In this review, we provide an overview on current literature on the impact of weight excess and central body fat distribution on the renal haemodynamic profile in humans, and its possible role in progressive renal damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-49
Number of pages8
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Volume28
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2013

Keywords

  • body fat distribution
  • glomerular hypertension
  • hyperfiltration
  • obesity
  • renal haemodynamics
  • GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE
  • EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUME
  • SALT-SENSITIVE PATIENTS
  • KIDNEY-DISEASE
  • TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
  • SERUM CREATININE
  • HEALTHY-SUBJECTS
  • ANGIOTENSIN-II
  • SEVERE OBESITY
  • WEIGHT-LOSS

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Body mass index and body fat distribution as renal risk factors: a focus on the role of renal haemodynamics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this