Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

H. Haisma*, W.A. Coward, E. Albernaz, G.H. Visser, J.C.K. Wells, A. Wright, C.G. Victora

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF).

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Community-based study in urban Pelotas, Southern Brazil.

Subjects: A total of 70 infants aged 4 months recruited at birth.

Main outcome measures: Breast milk intake measured using a 'dose-to-the-mother' deuterium-oxide turnover method; feeding pattern and macronutrient intake assessed using a frequency questionnaire.

Results: Adjusted mean breast milk intakes were not different between EBF and PBF (EBF, 806 g/day vs PBF, 778 g/day, P=0.59). The difference between EBF and PartBF was significant (PartBF, 603 g/day, P=0.004). Mean intakes of water from supplements were 10 g/day (EBF), 134 g/day (PBF) and 395 g/day (PartBF). Compared to EBF these differences were significant (EBF vs PBF, P=0.005; EBF vs PartBF, P

Conclusions: There was no evidence that breast milk was replaced by water, tea or juice in PBF compared to EBF infants. The energy intake in BF+CM/FM infants tended to be 20% above the latest recommendations ( 1996) for breast-fed and 9% above those for formula-fed infants. If high intakes are maintained, this may result in obesity later in life.

Sponsorship: International Atomic Energy Agency through RC 10981/R1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1633-1642
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume57
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2003

Keywords

  • breast milk intake
  • deuterium-oxide turnover method
  • energy intake
  • FORMULA-FED INFANTS
  • COMPLEMENTARY FOODS
  • DEUTERIUM DILUTION
  • GROWTH
  • EXPENDITURE
  • LACTATION
  • VOLUME
  • MOTHER
  • OUTPUT
  • OXIDE

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