Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction in Patients with Emphysema due to Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Stephanie Everaerts, Jorine E. Hartman, Marlies Van Dijk, T. David Koster, Dirk Jan Slebos, Karin Klooster*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Background: Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way endobronchial valves (EBVs) is a valid therapy for severe emphysema patients. However, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT)-deficient patients were excluded from the majority of clinical trials investigating this intervention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of EBV treatment in patients with AAT deficiency (AATD) or a reduced AAT level. Method: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients treated with EBV with confirmed AATD or with a reduced AAT serum level at the University Medical Center Groningen between 2013 and 2021. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessment included chest CT, pulmonary function measurement, 6-min walking distance (6MWD), and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: In total, 53 patients were included, 30 patients in the AATD group (AAT <0.6 g/L or confirmed ZZ phenotype) and 23 patients in the reduced AAT group (AAT 0.6-1 g/L). In both groups, all response variables improved significantly after treatment. There was a median increase in forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 105 mL (12% relative) and 280 mL (31% relative) in the AATD and reduced AAT groups, respectively. 6MWD increased by 62 min and 52 min, and SGRQ decreased by 12.5 patients and 18.7 patients, respectively. A pneumothorax occurred in 10% and 13% of patients, and no patients died. Conclusions: EBV treatment in patients with emphysema and AATD or a reduced AAT level is feasible and results in significant improvements in pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and quality of life and has an acceptable safety profile.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134–142
Number of pages9
JournalRespiration
Volume102
Early online date22-Dec-2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
  • Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction
  • COPD
  • Emphysema

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