Building from a conceptual model of the resilience process during ageing, towards the Groningen Aging Resilience Inventory

Renske van Abbema*, Annemiek Bielderman, Mathieu De Greef, Hans Hobbelen, Wim Krijnen, Cees van der Schans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Aim. To develop and psychometrically test the Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory.

Background. Ageing is a process that is often accompanied by functional limitation, disabilities and losses. Instead of focusing on these negative events of ageing, there are opportunities in focusing on adaptation mechanisms, like resilience, that are helpful to cope with those adversities.

Design. Cross-sectional study.

Method. The study was conducted from 2011-2012. First, a conceptual model of resilience during the ageing process was constructed. Next, items were formulated that made up a comprehensive template questionnaire reflecting the model. Finally, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of this template 16-item questionnaire.

Findings. Participants (N = 229) with a mean age of 71.5 years, completed the template 16-item Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory, and performance based tests and psychological questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a two factor solution of internal and external resources of resilience. Three items did not discriminate well between the two factors and were deleted, remaining a final 13-item questionnaire that shows evidence of good internal consistency. The direction and magnitude of the correlations with other measures support the construct validity.

Conclusion. The Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory is a useful instrument that can help nurses, other healthcare workers, researchers and providers of informal care to identify the internal and external resources of resilience in individuals and groups. In a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial approach this knowledge provides tools for empowering older patients in performing health promoting behaviors and self-care tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2208-2219
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep-2015


  • diagnostic tests
  • instrument development
  • nursing
  • older adults
  • psychometric testing
  • reliability
  • resilience
  • validity
  • LIFE
  • AGE

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