The X-ray crystal structure for the adduct of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) with 4-(4-sulfamoylpihenylcarboxamidoethyl)benzenesulfonamide, a topically acting antiglaucoma sulfonamide has been resolved at a resolution of 1.8 Angstrom. Its binding to the enzyme is similar with that of other sulfonamides, considering the interactions of the sulfonamide zinc anchoring group, but differs considerably when the organic part of the inhibitor is analyzed. This part of the inhibitor interacts only within the hydrophobic half of the CA active site, leaving the hydrophilic half able to accomodate several water molecules not present in the uncomplexed enzyme. Furthermore, the second head (sulfonamide moiety) participates in two strong hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues (Gly 132 and Gln 136) situated on the rim of the entrance to the active site cleft. Thus, the answer to the question in the title of this paper is that two heads are better than one, since the two sulfamoyl moieties of the inhibitor allow its proper orientation within the active site, with only one head binding in ionized form to the zinc ion, the organic part lying within the hydrophobic half of the active site, and the terminal, carboxamido containing phenylsulfamoyl head participating in strong hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues located at the entrance of it. All these findings are important for the design of better carboxamido CA inhibitors with applications in clinical medicine. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- PRESSURE-LOWERING PROPERTIES