Cas9-directed long-read sequencing to resolve optical genome mapping findings in leukemia diagnostics

Eddy N de Boer*, Vincent Vroom, Arjen J Scheper, Lennart F Johansson, Laura Bosscher, Nettie Rietema, Sabrina Z Commandeur-Jan, Nine V A M Knoers, Birgit Sikkema-Raddatz, Eva van den Berg, Cleo C van Diemen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Leukemias are genetically heterogeneous and diagnostics therefore includes various standard-of-care (SOC) techniques, including karyotyping, SNP-array and FISH. Optical genome mapping (OGM) may replace these as it detects different types of structural aberrations simultaneously and additionally detects much smaller aberrations (500 bp vs 5-10 Mb with karyotyping). However, its resolution may still be too low to define clinical relevance of aberrations when they are located between two OGM labels or when labels are not distinct enough. Here, we test the potential of Cas9-directed long-read sequencing (LRS) as an additional technique to resolve such potentially relevant new findings. From an internal Bionano implementation study we selected ten OGM calls that could not be validated with SOC methods. Per variant we designed crRNAs for Cas9 enrichment, prepared libraries and sequenced them on a MinION/GridION device. We could confirm all aberrations and, importantly, the actual breakpoints of the OGM calls were located between 0.2 and 5.5 kb of the OGM-estimated breakpoints, confirming the high reliability of OGM. Furthermore, we show examples of redefinition of aberrations between labels that enable judgment of clinical relevance. Our results suggest that Cas9-directed LRS can be a relevant and flexible secondary technique in diagnostic workflows including OGM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8508
Number of pages9
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 12-Apr-2024


  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems
  • Karyotyping
  • Leukemia
  • Chromosome Mapping


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