Catestatin induces glycogenesis by stimulating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT pathway

Gautam Bandyopadhyay*, Kechun Tang*, Nicholas J G Webster, Geert van den Bogaart, Sushil K Mahata*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Aim: Defects in hepatic glycogen synthesis contribute to post-prandial hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Chromogranin A (CgA) peptide Catestatin (CST: hCgA 352-372) improves glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant mice. Here, we seek to determine whether CST induces hepatic glycogen synthesis. Methods: We determined liver glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) and glycogen synthase (GYS2) activities; plasma insulin, glucagon, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels in wild-type (WT) as well as in CST knockout (CST-KO) mice; glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis in primary hepatocytes. We also analysed phosphorylation signals of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1), GYS2, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), AKT (a kinase in AKR mouse that produces Thymoma)/PKB (protein kinase B) and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) by immunoblotting. Results: CST stimulated glycogen accumulation in fed and fasted liver and in primary hepatocytes. CST reduced plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. CST also directly stimulated glycogenesis and inhibited noradrenaline and adrenaline-induced glycogenolysis in hepatocytes. In addition, CST elevated the levels of UDPG and increased GYS2 activity. CST-KO mice had decreased liver glycogen that was restored by treatment with CST, reinforcing the crucial role of CST in hepatic glycogenesis. CST improved insulin signals downstream of IR and IRS-1 by enhancing phospho-AKT signals through the stimulation of PDK-1 and mTORC2 (mTOR Complex 2, rapamycin-insensitive complex) activities. Conclusions: CST directly promotes the glycogenic pathway by (a) reducing glucose production, (b) increasing glycogen synthesis from UDPG, (c) reducing glycogenolysis and (d) enhancing downstream insulin signalling.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13775
Number of pages21
JournalActa physiologica
Issue number1
Early online date5-Jan-2022
Publication statusPublished - May-2022

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