Changes in Impaired Fasting Glucose and Borderline High Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Status Alter the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A 9-Year Prospective Cohort Study

Xianxuan Wang, Yan-Feng Zhou, Zegui Huang, Xinran Yu, Zekai Chen, Zefeng Cai, Yulong Lan, Werijian Li, Zhiwei Cai, Wei Fang, Guanzhi Chen, Weiqiang Wu, Shouling Wu*, Youren Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Abstract

    BackgroundWe aimed to characterize the relationships of the changes in impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and borderline high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) status with cardiovascular disease (CVD). MethodsA total of 36,537 participants who did not have previous CVD, diabetes mellitus, or high LDL-C (>= 4.1 mmol/L), nor were taking lipid-lowering drugs were recruited from the Kailuan study. The participants were allocated to six groups according to their baseline and follow-up fasting blood glucose (FBG) and LDL-C concentrations: (1) both were normal; (2) both normal at baseline, one abnormality subsequently; (3) both normal at baseline, both abnormal subsequently; (4) at least one abnormality that became normal; (5) at least one abnormality at baseline, a single abnormality subsequently; and (6) at least one abnormality, two abnormalities subsequently. The outcomes were CVD and subtypes of CVD (myocardial infarction and stroke). Multiple Cox regression models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and confidence interval (95% CI). ResultsDuring a median follow-up period of 9.00 years, 1,753 participants experienced a CVD event. After adjustment for covariates, participants with IFG in combination with a borderline high LDL-C status at baseline and follow-up had higher risks of CVD (HR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.04-2.23 and HR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.13-1.70, respectively) compared with those with normal fasting blood glucose and LDL-C. Compared with participants that remained normal, those who changed from normality to having two abnormalities were at a higher risk of CVD (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.98-1.61), as were those who changed from at least one abnormality to two abnormalities (HR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.02-2.15). ConclusionChanges in IFG and borderline high LDL-C status alter the risk of CVD and its subtype, implying that it is important to focus on such individuals for the prevention and control of CVD.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number882984
    Number of pages11
    JournalFrontiers in cardiovascular medicine
    Volume9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21-Jun-2022

    Keywords

    • impaired fasting glucose
    • borderline high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
    • cardiovascular disease
    • dynamic changes
    • cohort study
    • METABOLIC SYNDROME
    • HEMORRHAGIC STROKE
    • PREDICTIVE VALUES
    • ASSOCIATION
    • HEALTH
    • MORTALITY
    • TYPE-1
    • SERUM
    • ONSET
    • AGE

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