Chapter 10 - MicroRNAs linking oxidative stress and diabetes

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Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs (~19–25 nucleotides in length), which posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs and repress their translation, thereby regulating cellular signaling pathways.

As miRNAs regulate gene expression, miRNAs may impact the course of various diseases, including diabetes. Indeed, a growing body of evidence indicates that miRNAs determine the cellular oxidative state of a cell, culminating in disease.

In diabetes, there is a reciprocal interaction between miRNAs and oxidative stress, i.e., oxidative stress influences the biogenesis and function of miRNAs, and, vice versa, a derangement in miRNAs expression might culminate in the elevation of oxidative stress by diminishing the endogenous antioxidant capacity or facilitating free radical production.

Here, we review the biogenesis of miRNAs and the mechanisms by which miRNA biogenesis is altered by oxidative stress. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms by which miRNAs enhance cellular oxidative stress levels in the context of diabetes and its complications.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDiabetes
Subtitle of host publicationOxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants
EditorsVictor R. Preedy
PublisherAcademic Press
Chapter10
Pages97-106
Number of pages10
Edition2
ISBN (Print)978-0-12-815776-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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