Dysfunction of the immune system and mitochondrial metabolism has been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. Mutations and increased kinase activity of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are linked to both idiopathic and familial PD. However, the function of LRRK2 in the immune cells under inflammatory conditions is contradictory. Our results showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation increased the kinase activity of LRRK2 in parental RAW 264.7 (WT) cells. In addition to this, LRRK2 deletion in LRRK2 KO RAW 264.7 (KO) cells altered cell morphology following LPS stimulation compared to the WT cells, as shown by an increase in the cell impedance as observed by the xCELLigence measurements. LPS stimulation caused an increase in the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in both WT and KO cells. However, WT cells displayed a higher ROS level compared to the KO cells. Moreover, LRRK2 deletion led to a reduction in interleukin-6 (IL-6) inflammatory cytokine and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and an increase in lactate production after LPS stimulation compared to the WT cells. These data illustrate that LRRK2 has an effect on inflammatory processes in RAW macrophages upon LPS stimulation.
- Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2/genetics
- Reactive Oxygen Species
- Signal Transduction