Chemical characterisation of three haemolytic compounds from the microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)

M. Fu*, A Koulman, M van Rijssel, A. Lutzen, M.K. de Boer, M.R. Tyl, G. Liebezeit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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The molecular Structures of the three main haemolytic compounds (Fj1, Fj2 and Fj3) isolated from the ichthyotoxic microalgal species Fibrocapsa japonica have been investigated by NMR, LC-ESI-MS, ESI-MS-MS, IR, GC-MS and GC-HRMS methods. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids which we identified as: 6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA, C18:4omega3). 5,8.11,14,1 7-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5omega3) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid AA, C20:4omega6). The identity of the latter two was confirmed on the basis of commercial standards (C20:5omega3 and C20:4omega6). Both displayed the same spectroscopic and chromatographic characteristics as Fj2 and Fj3 and had a similar strong haemolytic effect. We propose that when F. japonica cells accumulate in fish gills during blooms these compounds could be the cause of icthyotoxicity. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-363
Number of pages9
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • Fibrocapsa japonica
  • haemolytic compounds
  • 6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid (OTA,C18 : 4 omega 3)
  • 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20 : 5 omega 3)
  • 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid AA, C20 : 4 omega 6)
  • high performance liquid chromatography
  • nuclear magnetic resonance
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry
  • gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry
  • erythrocyte lysis assay

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