BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated to intermittent hypoxia (IH) and is an aggravating factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the effects of hypoxia in both in vitro and in vivo models of NAFLD.
METHODS: Primary rat hepatocytes treated with free fatty acids (FFA) were subjected to chemically induced hypoxia (CH) using the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilizer cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Triglyceride (TG) content, mitochondrial superoxide production, cell death rates, cytokine and inflammasome components gene expression and protein levels of cleaved caspase-1 were assessed. Also, Kupffer cells (KC) were treated with conditioned medium (CM) and extracellular vehicles (EVs) from hypoxic fat-laden hepatic cells. The choline deficient L-amino acid defined (CDAA)-feeding model used to assess the effects of IH on experimental NAFLD in vivo.
RESULTS: Hypoxia induced HIF-1α in cells and animals. Hepatocytes exposed to FFA and CoCl2 exhibited increased TG content and higher cell death rates as well as increased mitochondrial superoxide production and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of inflammasome-components interleukin-1β, NLRP3 and ASC. Protein levels of cleaved caspase-1 increased in CH-exposed hepatocytes. CM and EVs from hypoxic fat-laden hepatic cells evoked a pro-inflammatory phenotype in KC. Livers from CDAA-fed mice exposed to IH exhibited increased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory and inflammasome genes and increased levels of cleaved caspase-1.
CONCLUSION: Hypoxia promotes inflammatory signals including inflammasome/caspase-1 activation in fat-laden hepatocytes and contributes to cellular crosstalk with KC by release of EVs. These mechanisms may underlie the aggravating effect of OSAS on NAFLD. [Abstract word count: 257].
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Biochimica et biophysica acta-Molecular basis of disease|
|Early online date||29-Feb-2020|
|Publication status||Published - 1-Jun-2020|
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
- Fatty liver disease
- Hypoxia, liver injury, steatosis, apoptosis
- CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA
- OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA
- NLRP3 INFLAMMASOME
- NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS
- RAT HEPATOCYTES
- PALMITIC ACID