Chemotaxis and adherence to fungal surfaces are key components of the behavioral response of Burkholderia terrae BS001 to two selected soil fungi

Irshad Ul Haq*, Renata Oliveira da Rocha Calixto, Pu Yang, Giulia Maria Pires dos Santos, Eliana Barreto-Bergter, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Wietse de Boer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Burkholderia terrae BS001 has previously been proposed to be a 'generalist' associate of soil fungi, but its strategies of interaction have been largely ignored. Here, we studied the chemotactic behavior of B. terrae BS001 towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 and the role of fungal surface molecules in their physical interaction with the bacteria. To assess the involvement of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), wild-type strain BS001 and T3SS mutant strain BS001-Delta sctD were used in the experiments. First, the two fungi showed divergent behavior when confronted with B. terrae BS001 on soil extract agar medium. Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten revealed slow growth towards the bacterium, whereas T. asperellum 302 grew avidly over it. Both on soil extract and M9 agar, B. terrae BS001 and BS001-Delta sctD moved chemotactically towards the hyphae of both fungi, with a stronger response to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten than to T. asperellum 302. The presence of a progressively increasing glycerol level in the M9 agar enhanced the level of movement. Different oxalic acid concentrations exerted varied effects, with a significantly raised chemotactic response at lower, and a subdued response at higher concentrations. Testing of the adherence of B. terrae BS001 and BS001-Delta sctD to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and to cell envelope-extracted ceramide monohexosides (CMHs) revealed that CMHs in both conidia and hyphae could bind strain BS001 cells. As BS001-Delta sctD adhered significantly less to the CMHs than BS001, the T3SS was presumed to have a role in the interaction. In contrast, such avid adherence was not detected with T. asperellum 302. Thus, B. terrae BS001 shows a behavior characterized by swimming towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and T. asperellum 302 and attachment to the CMH moiety in the cell envelope, in particular of the former.

Original languageEnglish
Article number164
Number of pages14
JournalFEMS Microbial Ecology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2016


  • chemotaxis
  • bacterial-fungal interaction
  • Lyophyllum sp
  • strain Karsten
  • Trichoderma asperellum 302
  • ceramide monohexosides
  • ACID

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