Chest Radiographs for Distinguishing ADA-SCID from Other Forms of SCID

Martijn V Verhagen*, Valentina Trevisan, John Adu, Catherine M Owens, Claire Booth, Alistair Calder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Purpose: Early differentiation of adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID) from other forms of SCID may initiate appropriate treatment interventions with the aim of metabolic detoxification and improved outcome. Our hypothesis was that previously described radiological features (inferior scapular angle squaring and spurring and costochondral cupping) can differentiate ADA-SCID from other forms of SCID. Methods: Chest radiographs at clinical presentation between 2000 and 2017 of children with ADA-SCID were retrospectively included, provided that the radiological features were assessable. Random chest radiographs of children with other forms of SCID were included for comparison. Three paediatric radiologists (2 senior, 1 junior) assessed the radiographs for the specific radiological features and stated their diagnosis (ADA-SCID or non-ADA-SCID). An optimal threshold for test performance was defined using a ROC curve. Results: Thirty-six patients with ADA-SCID and twenty-five patients with non-ADA-SCID were included (median age 3.8 months). The optimal threshold for test performance was at approximately < 7 months old: sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 80.7%, interreader agreement was k = 0.709, AUC 0.862. The positive likelihood ratio for scapular squaring, scapular spur, and costochondral cupping was 4.0, 54.6 and 7.8, respectively. The test was valid when performed by both senior and junior paediatric radiologists. Conclusion: Radiological features such as scapular spurring, scapular squaring and costochondral cupping can reliably differentiate between ADA-SCID and other forms of SCID. This is true for children aged approximately < 7 months, and this is reliable when assessed by both senior and junior paediatric radiologists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-266
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Immunology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb-2020
Externally publishedYes

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