CHRONOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS WITH DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY DISORDERS IN A LARGE COHORT STUDY

Niki Antypa, Nicole Vogelzangs, Ybe Meesters, Robert Schoevers, Brenda W. J. H. Penninx*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

176 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BackgroundThe chronotype, being a morning or an evening type, can influence an individual's psychological health. Studies have shown a link between depressed mood and being an evening type; however, most studies have used symptom scales and not diagnostic criteria, and confounding factors such as sleep patterns and somatic health factors have often not been considered. This study aims to examine the association between chronotype and depressive (major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia) and anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social phobia) disorders diagnosed using clinical interviews, while taking into account relevant sociodemographic, clinical, somatic health, and sleep parameters.

MethodsData from a large cohort, the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used (n = 1,944), which included 676 currently depressed and/or anxious patients, 831 remitted patients, and 437 healthy controls. Chronotype was assessed using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire.

ResultsOur results showed that current depressive and/or anxiety disorders were associated with a late chronotype ( = .10, P = .004) even when adjusting for sociodemographic, somatic health, and sleep-related factors ( = .09, P = .03). When examining each type of disorder separately, MDD only, but not dysthymia or specific anxiety disorders, was associated with the late chronotype. The late chronotype also reported significant diurnal mood variation (worse mood in the morning).

ConclusionsOur findings show a clear association between MDD and late chronotype (being an evening type), after controlling for a range of pertinent factors. A late chronotype is therefore associated with a current status of MDD and deserves the relevant clinical attention when considering treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-83
Number of pages9
JournalDepression and Anxiety
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2016

Keywords

  • evening type
  • morning type
  • diurnal mood variation
  • MDD
  • NESDA
  • anxiety
  • DIURNAL MOOD VARIATION
  • MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS SCORE
  • CIRCADIAN TYPOLOGY
  • SENSATION SEEKING
  • YOUNG-ADULTS
  • PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES
  • ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION
  • SLEEP-DEPRIVATION
  • COLLEGE-STUDENTS
  • POSITIVE AFFECT

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