BACKGROUND: Chronotype reflects an individual's optimal daily timing of sleep, activity, and cognitive performance. Previous, cross-sectional, studies have suggested an age effect on chronotype with later chronotypes in adolescents and earlier chronotypes in children and elderly. Additionally, later chronotypes have been associated with more depressive symptoms. Few studies have been able to study longitudinal associations between chronotype and age, while adjusting for depressive symptoms.
METHODS: Chronotype was assessed twice with the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire 7 years apart in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (T1: N = 1842, mean age (SD): 42.63 years (12.66)) and T2: N = 1829, mean age (SD) 50.67 (13.11)). The longitudinal association between change in age and change in chronotype was tested using a generalized estimated equation analysis adjusted for covariates (including level of depressive symptoms). Using age-bins of 5 years (age at T2), change in chronotype between T1 and T2 was analyzed with Linear Mixed Models.
RESULTS: We found a change towards an earlier chronotype with higher age (B (95% CI): -0.011 (-0.014-0.008), p < 0.001). For the age-bins, the difference in chronotype was significant for the 25-29 years age-bin.
LIMITATIONS: The sample did not include individuals younger than 19 years or older than 68 years.
CONCLUSIONS: In the whole sample chronotype changed towards becoming more morning-type over a period of 7 years, but this change was only significant for those aged 25-29 years. The study was performed in a large naturalistic cohort study with a wide age-range, including patients with a diagnosis of depressive and anxiety disorder and healthy controls.
- Depressive symptoms